Volume 3, Issue 2, March 2015, Page: 17-27
Association of Superoxide Dismutase, Glutathione Peroxidase, Catalse, and Xanthine Oxidase with Incidence of Bladder Cancer
Shatha Rouf Moustafa, Clinical Analysis Department, College of Pharmacy, Hawler Medical University, Havalan City, Erbil, Iraq
Received: Mar. 6, 2015;       Accepted: Mar. 19, 2015;       Published: Mar. 23, 2015
DOI: 10.11648/j.crj.20150302.11      View  3603      Downloads  157
Abstract
Background: Emerging evidence indicates a potential role of anti-oxidant enzymes in the prevention of bladder cancer. Aims: This study assessed the correlation between the anti-oxidative enzymes with bladder cancer incidence. The present study was aimed to estimate the levels of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and xanthine oxidase in patients to perform a comprehensive analysis of bladder cancer antioxidant capacity. These parameters were correlated with other confounding factors age, gender, smoking, grade, stage, and tumor size and find out the correlation between all studied parameters to clarify the potential link between antioxidant enzymes expression and disease progression or metastatic dissemination. Method: This case control study was done at College of Pharmacy/Hawler Medical University in period between 15/4/2013 and 15/ 4/2014 on 50 newly diagnosed patients with bladder cancer of both genders (48 men and 2 women) with a mean age 65.12 ±10.23 years, and an equal number of matched gender–age (47 men and 3 women ) apparently healthy adults were also enrolled in this study with a mean age 62 ±9.593 years. The antioxidant enzymes were measured using high pressure liquid chromatography. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) version 18.0. Results: There were a significant reduction in the serum superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase levels and a significant elevation in the serum xanthine oxidase level, there were no significant age differences between all age categories regarding all studied parameters except, xanthine oxidase levels, there were a significant differences between two age categories 60-69 and 70, p=0.023, there were significant differences between two age categories ˂ 60 and 60-69 regarding tumor size p= 0.042, there were no significant effect of smoking, grade and stage on the serum studied parameters levels. There were no signification correlation coefficient between all studied parameters. Conclusions: These findings supported the concept that significant reduction in the serum super oxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase levels accompanied with significant elevation in the serum xanthine oxidase level might be a pathogenic and prognostic factors in bladder cancer. This investigation therefore focused on the measurement of variables indicative of imbalances in oxidative and anti-oxidative status. Variations in antioxidant enzyme activities might be a potentially important finding as an additional diagnostic biochemical tool for BC .These findings suggest possible use of antioxidant supplementation as prophylactic agents for prevention and treatment of bladder cancer.
Keywords
Bladder Cancer, Superoxide Dismutase, Glutathione Peroxcidase, Catalase, Xanthine Oxidase
To cite this article
Shatha Rouf Moustafa, Association of Superoxide Dismutase, Glutathione Peroxidase, Catalse, and Xanthine Oxidase with Incidence of Bladder Cancer, Cancer Research Journal. Vol. 3, No. 2, 2015, pp. 17-27. doi: 10.11648/j.crj.20150302.11
Reference
[1]
Yoshiyuki Kakehi1,Yoshihiko Hirao, Wun-Jae Kim, Seiichiro Ozono, Naoya Masumori,NaotoMiyanaga, Yasutomo Nasu and Akira Yokomizo, (2010). Bladder Cancer Working Group Report. Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol, 40(1): 57-64.
[2]
Iraqi Cancer Registry (ICR) (2005).
[3]
Aymelek Gönenç , Derya Erten , Sabahattin Aslan ,Melih Akıncı , Bolkan Şimşek and Meral Torun, (2006). Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in blood and tissue of malignant breast tumor and benign breast disease. Cell Biol Int,30(4): 376-380.
[4]
Nishikawa M. (2008). Reactive oxygen species in tumor metastasis.Cancer Lett, 266: 53–59.
[5]
Barry Halliwell, (2007). Oxidative stress and cancer: have we moved forward?. Biochem. J., 401 :1–11.
[6]
Valko M , Rhodes CJ, Moncol J, Izakovic M, Mazur M. (2006). Free radicals, metals, and antioxidants in oxidative stress - induced cancer. Chem Biol Interact, 160(1): 1-40.
[7]
Kumar B , Koul S, Khandrika L, Meacham RB, Koul HK. (2008). Oxidative stress is inherent in prostate cancer cells and is required for aggressive phenotype.Cancer Res, 68(6): 1777–1785.
[8]
Kyeong-Ah Jung and Mi-Kyoung Kwak, (2010). The Nrf2 System as a Potential Target for the Development of Indirect Antioxidants. Molecules, 15: 7266-7291.
[9]
Al-Gayyar, M.M., Eissa, L.A., Rabie, A.M., El-Gayar, A.M. (2007). Measurements of oxidative stress status and antioxidant activity in chronic leukaemia patients. J. Pharm. Pharmacol, 59: 409-417.
[10]
Valko, M.; Leibfritz, D.; Moncol, J.; Cronin, M.T.; Mazur, M.; Telser, J. (2007). Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease. Int. J. Biochem. Cell. Biol, 39: 44-84.
[11]
Sharma A, Rajappa M, Saxena A, Sharma M. (2007). Antioxidant status in advanced cervical cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemoradiation.Br J Biomed Sci, 64(1): 23–27.
[12]
Arseniy E. (2012). Yuzhalin and Anton G. Kutikhin. Inherited variations in the SOD and GPX gene families and cancer risk. Free Radical Research, 46(5): 581-599 .
[13]
Oberley, L. W.(2005). Mechanism of the tumor suppressive effect of MnSOD overexpression. Biomed. Pharmacother, 59: 143–148.
[14]
Elchuri, S., Oberley, T. D., Qi, W., Eisenstein, R. S., Jackson Roberts, L., Van Remmen, H., Epstein, C. J. and Huang,T.T. (2005). CuZnSOD deficiency leads to persistent and widespread oxidative damage and hepatocarcinogenesis later in life. Oncogene, 24: 367–380.
[15]
Kang, S. W., Rhee, S. G., Chang, T. S., Jeong, W. and Choi, M. H. (2005). 2-Cys peroxiredoxin function in intracellular signal transduction: therapeutic implications.Trends Mol. Med, 11: 571–578.
[16]
Khan MA, Tania M, Zhang D, Chen H. (2010). Antioxidant enzymes and cancer. Chin J Cancer Res, 22 (2): 87–92.
[17]
Ahn J , Ambrosone CB, Kanetsky PA, Tian C, Lehman TA, Kropp S, Helmbold I, von Fournier D, Haase W, Sautter-Bihl ML, Wenz F, Chang-Claude J. (2006). Polymorphisms in genes related to oxidative Stress (CAT, MnSOD, MPO, and eNOS) and acute toxicities from radiation therapy following lumpectomy for breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res, 12: 7063–7070.
[18]
Chelikani P, Fita I, Loewen PC. (2004). Diversity of structures and properties among catalases. Cell. Mol. Life Sci, 61(2): 192–208.
[19]
McEligot A.J., Yang S., Meyskens F.L. (2005). Redox regulation by intrinsic species and extrinsic nutrients in normal and cancer cells. Ann. Rev. Nutr, 25: 261–295.
[20]
Harrison R. (2002). Structure and function of xanthine oxidoreductase. where are we now? Free Radic Biol Med, 33: 774-797.
[21]
Gülec M, Akin H, Yüce H, Ergin E, Elyas H, Yalcin O, Akyol O. (2003). Adenosine deaminase and xanthine oxidase activities in bladder washing fluid from patients with bladder cancer: a preliminary study. Clin Biochem, 36: 193-196.
[22]
İlker Durak, Hakki Perk, Mustafa Kavutçu, Orhan Canbolat, Ömer Akyol, Ya§ar Bedük, (1994). Adenosine deaminase, 5′nucleotidase, xanthineoxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities in cancerous and noncancerous human bladder tissues. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 16(6): 825–831.
[23]
YalçinO., Karataş F., Erulaş F. A., Özdemir E. (2004). The levels of glutathione peroxidase, vitamin A, E, C and lipid peroxidation in patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. BJU International, 93(6): 863–866.
[24]
Zhou, F., Zhang, W.,Wei, Y., Zhou, D., Su, Z., Meng, X., Hui, L., Tian, W. (2007). The changes of oxidative stress and human 8-hydroxyguanine glycosylase1 gene expression in depressive patients with acute leukemia. Leuk. Res,31: 387-393.
[25]
Nitika Badjatia, Abhigyan Satyam, Prabhjot Singh, Amlesh Seth and Alpana Sharma, (2010). Altered antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in Indian patients with urothelial bladder carcinoma. Urologic Oncology. Seminars and Original Investigations, 28(4): 360–367.
[26]
Aydin A, Arsova-Sarafinovska Z, Sayal A, Eken A, Erdem O, Erten K, Ozgök Y, Dimovski A.(2006). Oxidative stress and antioxidant status in non-metastatic prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia.Clin Bioche,36(2): 176–179.
[27]
Arikan S, Akcay T, Konukoglu D, Obek C and Kural AR.(2005). The relationship between antioxidant enzymes and bladder cancer. Neoplasma, 52(4):314-317.
[28]
Blum J. and Fridovich I. (1985). Inactivation of glutathioneperoxidase by superoxide radical. Arch Biochem Biophys, 240: 500–508.
[29]
Durak, H. Perk, M. Kavutcu, O. Canbolat, O. Akyol, Y. Beduk, (1994). Adenosine deaminase, 5′-nucleotidase, xanthineoxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities in cancerous and noncancerous human bladder tissues. Free Radic. Biol. Med, 16: 825–831.
[30]
Singh S.V., Xu B.H., Tkalcevic G.T., Gupta V., Roberts B., Ruiz P. (1994). Glutathione-linked detoxification pathway in normal and malignant human bladder tissue .Cancer Lett, 77: 15–24.
[31]
Storz P. (2005). Reactive oxygen species in tumor progression.Front Biosci, 10 :1881–1896.
[32]
Battisti, V.; Maders, L.D.; Bagatini, M.D.; Santos, K.F.; Spanevello, R.M.; Maldonado, P.A.; Brule, A.O.; Araujo Mdo, C.; Schetinger, M.R.; Morsch, V.M. (2008). Measurement of oxidative stress and antioxidant status in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. Clin. Biochem, 41: 511-518.
[33]
Nadine Hempel,Hanqing Ye,Bryan Abessi,Badar Mian and J. (2009). Andres Melendez. Altered redox status accompanies progression to metastatic human bladder cancer. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 46(1): 42–50.
[34]
Thanaa M. Juda , Mufeed J.Ewad, Kadum J.Alhamdani and Mohammed R.Judy, (2009). Correlation of Catalase with Trace Elements Zinc and Copper in Urinary Bladder Cancer Patients. Medical Journal of Babylon, 6(1) : 54-59.
[35]
Cobanoglu U, Demir H, Duran M, Şehitogullari A, Mergan D, Demir C. (2010). Erythrocyte catalase and carbonic anhydrase activities in lung cancer. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 11(5): 1377-1382.
[36]
Bayraktar N, Kilic S, Bayraktar MR, Aksoy N. (2010). Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities in cancerous bladder tissue and their relation with bacterial infection: a controlled clinical study. J Clin Lab Anal, 24 (10): 25-30.
[37]
Necip Pirinççi, Ilhan Geçit , Mustafa Güneş , Mehmet Bilgehan Yüksel , Mehmet Kaba , Serhat Tanık , Halit Demir ,Mehmet Aslan, (2012). Serum adenosine deaminase, catalase and carbonic anhydrase activities in patients with bladder cancer. Clinics, 67 (12): 1443-1446.
[38]
Mukaddes Güleç, Haluk Akın, H.üseyin Yüce, Ertürk Ergin, Halit Elyas, Orhan Yalçına andÖmer Akyol, (2003). Adenosine deaminase and xanthineoxidase activities in bladder washing fluid from patients with bladdercancer: a preliminary study. Clinical Biochemistry, 36(3): 193–196.
[39]
Nadia S Metwally, Sanaa A Ali, Azza M Mohamed, Hussein M Khaled and Samia A Ahmed, (2011). Levels of certain tumor markers as differential factors between bilharzial and non-biharzial bladder cancer among Egyptian patients. Cancer Cell International.11: 11-8.
[40]
Zaidi S.M., Al-Qirim T.M., Banu N. (2005). Effects of antioxidant vitamins on glutathione depletion and lipid peroxidation induced by restraint stress in the rat liver. Drugs R D, 6 : 157–165.
[41]
Kacakci A, Aslan I, Toplan S, Oysu C, Aslan O and Aydemir B. (2009). Significance of the counteracting oxidative and antioxidative systems in the pathogenesis of laryngeal carcinoma. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 38: 172-177.
[42]
Gokul S, Patil VS, Jailkhani R, Hallikeri K and Kattappagari KK. (2010). Oxidant-antioxidant status in blood and tumor tissue of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. Oral Dis, 16: 29-33.
[43]
Badjatia N., Satyam A., Singh P., Seth A. and Sharma A. (2010). Altered antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in Indian patients with urothelial bladder carcinoma. Urol Oncol, 28: 360- 367.
[44]
Nishigori C, Hattori Y and Toyokuni S. (2004). Role of reactive oxygen species in skin carcinogenesis. Antioxid Redox Signal, 6: 561-570.
[45]
Kc S, Carcamo JM and Golde DW. (2006). Antioxidants prevent oxidative DNA damage and cellular transformation elicited by the over-expression of c-MYC. Mutat Res, 593: 64-79.
[46]
Jemal A , Murray T, Ward E, Samuels A, Tiwari RC, Ghafoor A, Feuer EJ, Thun MJ. (2005). Cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin, 55 (1) : 10-30.
[47]
Kirkali Z , Chan T, Manoharan M, Algaba F, Busch C, Cheng L, Kiemeney L, Kriegmair M, Montironi R, Murphy WM, Sesterhenn IA, Tachibana M, Weider J. (2005). Bladder cancer: epidemiology, staging and grading, and diagnosis .Urology, 66 (6) : 4–34.
[48]
Jemal A, Siegel R, Ward E, Hao Y, Xu J, Murray T, Thun M.J.(2008). Cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin, 58 (2) : 71-96.
[49]
Parkin DM.(2008). The global burden of urinary bladder cancer. Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl, 218: 12-20.
[50]
Israa G. Zainal , Dr.Mhammed AL-Dori and Abdul-NasserM. Abdul, (2009). Study of some Antioxidants in plasma of patients with bladder cancer. Eng.&Tech.Journal, 27( 4): 751- 758.
Browse journals by subject